- Proposed by B. Boehm in May 1988
Major tasks( repeated as necessary) such as:
- customer communication
- risk analysis
- construction and release
- customer evaluation
- The ability to repeat as many times as necessary in the
- Error may not be detected and it may propagate further
down the system.
- Ideal for large-scale systems
- When customer communication is low.
- It is older than the spiral model.
Representation of components and relationship:
Goes through 3 circular steps:
- Customer communication
- Build and/or revise mock-up
- Customer test the software
- Best used on systems that are relatively small scale
- When customer gives strict guidelines regarding the
implementation of the system.
Comparison of the Spiral and Prototyping Model:
- The prototyping model is a simpler version of the spiral
- The prototyping model is better suited for early stages
- The prototyping model is inappropriate to be used when
the system has already been proven viable but need an
upgrade. Unlike, spiral lifecycle which enables rapid
replacement and updating, prototyping require rebuilding
the software from ground.
Questions anc Comments
- What are the relationships and rules that need to be
considered when using the spiral and prototyping model?
- What are the related tools and methodologies related to
both the models?
- What are others domain besides the ones listed above?
- How is the model represented in diagrams? I think it
should be clearer if there are diagrams to illustrate the
components and relationship.
Background material and information:
It is a distributed model.
- The client/server architecture emerged in the late 1980s.
- 3 major components:
- A standalone servers
- A set of clients
- A network
Relationship to Lifecycle Models:
- Has high risk assessment. A client/server is
associated with high risk and therefore is must be
- Allows errors to propagate without detection.
- Does not work well with the client/server
- Does not have enough time for thorough time for
- Most popular use of client/server model is the World Wide
- Client server is also being used throughout industry and
- It is inappropriate to use the client/server model in
small systems that did not involve any type of networking
Questions and Comments:
- Why and in what area that the spiral model ideal for
networking systems? Why is this point considered as an
advantage to the client/server architecture?
- I agree that spiral model does have high risk assessment
which increase reliability but does a client/server
necessary to be associated with high risk? If yes, why?
- What makes client/server better than other software
Data Flow Diagrams (DFDs)
Data Flow Diagrams are diagrams that show the flow of data
through a system.
Representation of component:
There are four types of components:
- External entities
- Data flow
- Data stores
Relationship and Rules:
- Each process can be broken down into a more simple set of
- All DFDs are traceable.
- DFDs are written from left to right or top to bottom.
- Phrases are used to name data flows and verbs for
- DFDs give a picturistic view of the system.
- The representation is easily understandable.
- Complex DFDs can be difficult to understand and may have
been detail overlooked.
- Used on a relatively simple system.
- Complex and real time system.
- Example: Microsoft words and Visio
It is designed to handle more complex method.
Representation of Components:
Can be broken down into two sections
- Requirement specification
- Interpreting the result
Each diagram has four major activities.
The functions are broken into subfunctions.
- Accurate representation for complex systems.
- Avoids clustering by dividing the data.
- Difficult to understand low level process in large
- Appropriate to be used in complex systems or an
- Object oriented activities because it involves the
separating of the data.
- SADT has a built in automated tools that supports
analysis procedures and defines organizational structure.
Questions and Comments
- What other tools that are related to SADT besides the
built in tools it?
- In SADT, it has diagrams to represent information. How
are they related to each other?
This project is about the software which enables the user
to keep track of the inventory items in stock and resulted
from sales, to update stock records and to project the
softwares to purchase.
The current system consists of manually logging :
- Customer ID number
- Title and serial number of the software purchased
- Date purchased
- Customer's signature
Into a three-ring binder at the time of purchase.
- Ringing the customer's purchase
- Completing logbook entry.
The proposed system consists of
- Scanning purchased item
- Entering customer information
- Subtracting the purchased item from the current
- Adding the purchased into the sales inventory.
- Verify customer's ID.
- User update inventory.
Questions and Comments
- Since the project needs scanning, don't you think that in
the hardware required, a scanner should be added as a
- How about securities features in the system?
- Why not include the logbook idea in the current logical
system into the proposed logical system? That certainly
will make maintenance easier and more organized.
Microsoft Project 98 vs. Open Plan Professional:
This project is about the comparison and contrast of
Microsoft project 98 and Open Plan Professional.
The areas that the group compares and contrasts are
- The Look and Feel
- Multiple Views
- Task Splitting
- Project Reminders
- Project Hierarchy
- Multi-user Communication
- Publishing Records
Questions and Comments
- What features make Microsoft Project 98 more outstanding
and user friendly that other software management tools?
- Can you identify which type of projects is more suitable
to use Microsoft Project 98 rather than Open Plan