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Simple Procedural and Block Structured, Procedural

(FORTRAN and Pascal)


Pascal is a language named after a French scientist, Blaise Pascal. But, FORTRAN is not. FORTRAN came from the title of "The IBM Mathematical FORmula TRANslating System." Pascal was first introduced in 1971 while FORTRAN was introduced in 1954. Pascal became a programming language used to produce software and used to teach basic of programming. FORTRAN used only for the IBM machines, developers had no intention to implement it on other computers.


FORTRAN is a simple procedure programming language. Also, FORTRAN is the first high-level programming language. In each newer version of FORTRAN, it contains new features such as built-in function and conditional statements.

Pascal I s one of the first languages that allowed for hierarchical programming structure. Pascal programs are made up of smaller subprogram which themselves are structured programs. Those subprograms can be combine into a big program.


Handling of Data Objects

Both Pascal and FORTRAN support integer, boolean, string, character, real, array, record, and pointer data type objects. Pascal uses both static and dynamic variables allocation while FORTRAN only uses static variables allocation.


Handling of Sequence Control

Both Pascal and FORTAN have mathematical operators such as addition (+), subtraction (-), multiplication (*), and division (/). Precedence of these mathematical operations are the same for both Pascal and FORTRAN. In addition, both of them also have parenthesis to change the precedence of the operator. Whatever in the parenthesis should be process first.

FORTRAN did not use mathematical symbol representation for Relational Operators until FORTRAN 90. Basically, both Pascal and FORTRAN 90 have the same kind of symbols to represent the relation between variables except "Not Equal" operator. Pascal uses "<>" but FORTRAN 90 uses "/=".

Furthermore, both Pascal and FORTRAN support Conditional Operations such as IF-THEN-ELSE statement, WHILE statement, and GOTO statement.

Handling of Subprogram and Storage Management

Pascal contains both procedures and functions as subprogram of the language. FORTRAN only have functions or subroutines as subprogram. Both functions in Pascal and FORTRAN will pass values back to the main program. But, procedures in Pascal does not pass any value back to the main program. Variables of Pascal are passed by either pass-by-value or pass-by-reference parameters when the main program calls the subprograms. Only call-by-reference in earlier FORTRAN and the newer method is called pass-by-value-result which is use in FORTRAN 90.

Pascal contain static variables that are defined in the declaration section, while dynamic variables are created by NEW (pointer_variable) so that Pascal will create a memory allocation for the variables during run-time. Memory allocation can be reclaim back to the operating system by DISPOSE (pointer_variable).

For FORTRAN, it only support static allocation variables because there could only be one instance of a subprogram record at any time.

Handling of Abstraction and Encapsulation

Pascal allows for abstraction through the use of functions. Unfortunately, this is one of few examples of Pascal in abstraction and encapsulation. FORTRAN uses COMMON blocks to encapsulate data that could be passed within functions. The same variable could belong to several COMMON blocks.